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repealed by the Energy Efficiency Directive. Read
· Energy Service
of Energy Service Directive. Read
Energy Efficiency Action Plans, 2007. Read
Final Directive 2006/32 - Description, 2006. Read
by INFORSE-Europe. Read
ESD repealed by the Energy Efficiency Directive
As Europe was not
on a track to meet the targets on 20% energy savings for 2020, the
European Commission launched an Energy Efficiency Plan on
March 2011 suggesting the revision of this Directive, and a Directive
on Energy Efficiency was set up in June 2011 and a compromise
text was agreed in June 2012 (read it here).
It implemented and joint together stronger energy efficiency policy,
and it focus on public
sector savings, energy metering for consumers and other measures
such as mandatory energy audits for large companies.
It repeals the Energy
Service Directive 2006/32,
though the Members States must follow the time limits for
transposition into national law of Directive 2006/32.
Following the Directive on energy end-use efficiency and energy services,
all EU Member States should have submitted their second National Energy
Efficiency Action Plans in summer of 2011.
EEW2 project, which aims to facilitate the implementation of the
Energy Services Directive, will present in September 2012 the
results of the EU-wide
survey on the implementation of national energy efficiency policies
as well as a report for every EU Member State. The national reports
provide a qualitative overview of the specific national energy efficiency
policies and their implementation based on the survey results and NEEAPs
screening. More info about EEW here.
Energy Service Directive
purpose of the Energy Service
Directive (Directive 2006/32) is to enhance energy
end-use efficiency using cost effective improvements. A key element
in the directive is a 9% energy efficiency target until 2016 for
all EU countries. The directive require all EU countries to make
National Energy Efficiency Action Plans (NEEAP)
the Directive was adopted in 2006, NEEAPs' have been adopted
in the EU countries. They include, among others:
· indicative national targets of 16% realised by actions of states and
stakeholders until 2016.
· removing existing market barriers by providing improved frameworks
· creating conditions to promote and development the energy services market
· setting targets for energy suppliers in many countries,
· setting new measures, such
as tradable “White
that have been introduced in some countries.
Due to certain
weaknesses in the Directive, it is uncertain whether
the measures will add up to the expected savings until 2016 and in
a meaningful way.
Because of the
problem, a revision of the directive is called for by several
stakeholders including INFORSE-Europe. The revision could include,
among others, a provision for public incentives to
be only provided
measures that guarantee a measurable energy saving. A revision is also
considered by the EU Commission, but not within the coming year (2011)
Read about the directive
and the NEEAPs at the EU Commission Website
Review of Energy Service Directive
4 years afte the Energy Service Directive entered into force, it
is not seen a strong driver for energy efficiency in the EU. On the other
hand, it has several good elements and with improvements and better linking
to the other EU policies, including the 20% energy efficiency target
for 2020, it could play a more important role.
INFORSE - Europe has made following review
and proposals for improvements(2010)
In July 2009, the "Energy Efficiency Watch Initiative" (EEWI)
evaluated the NEEAPs, see http://www.energy-efficiency-watch.org/. The
evaluation showed some weakness and methodological uncertainties in the
directive that negatively
influences the implementation.
The spectrum of new measures mentioned in the national action plans
is quite impressive, but the study found reasons to be skeptical
these measures have been caused by the ESD or whether they would have
been implemented anyway. It concluded that in the national
plans it is not clear how much expected savings by 2016 will be realised
in addition to the savings that would
have occurred anyway in the business - as - usual trends.
National Energy Efficiency Action Plans
With the Directive, the EU countries have an obligation to make national
energy efficiency action plans. The first plans were made for the
deadline, June 2007. By end of 2007, the EU
from 19 of the 27 EU countries: Since then the remaining 8 plans
has been delivered. The plans describe how the countries will realise
a 9% reduction in final energy consumption compared with business as
Of the first 17 countries that submitted their plans, 8 intend to
achieve higher savings that the 9%; but only 5 of the countries have
adopted higher targets (10%), Lithuania (11%), Italy (9.6%), Romania
and Spain (11% by 2012). Several countries have not made plans until
2016, so it is not possible to evaluate how they can reach
Many national plans include important measures to increase
energy efficiency. This includes special actions for the
public sector, campaigns,
incentives, funds, etc. Many of the
are, however, not new. The number of new activities from the implementation
of the Directive is more limited.
The NEEAP's running time is until 2012. Then
new NEAAPs shall be made for the following years.
Read EU Commission overview and the 27 NEEAPs the
EU Commission website.
A synthesis of the complete assessment of all 27 National Plans to
the National Energy Efficiency Action Plans (NEEAP),
was published in 2009. This synthesis
was required by the directive.
Read the EC
working document as pdf.
Energy Service Directive - Description
The Directive was finally adopted as Directive 2006/32
on April 5, 2006. It entered into force May 17, 2006 and shall
be implemented on May 17, 2008.
The Directive is
The energy efficiency target is 1%/year, for the first 9-year period.
The target is defined as the energy efficiency improvements resulting
from energy efficiency measures specified in the text. While this is
a sensible way to measure it from a policy-maker's point of view, the
list includes a number of measures that are - or can be - part of the
normal "business as usual" development of increased energy
efficiency of the societies. Thus, its open for some "free riding" of
countries that counts energy efficiency improvements that are not an
effect of active policies.
The Directive also sets provisions to create conditions for the development
and promotion of a market for energy services and for the delivery of other
energy efficiency improvement measures for final consumers.
Opinion by INFORSE-Europe
the EU countries to strengthen the energy efficiency target in the
of the directive. The target should be more than
1%/ per year above business as usual,
INFORSE-Europe recommends 2-3% per year in additional energy efficiency
call for seemingly high targets are because of the low increase in energy
efficiency in the last 5 years, both compared with the technical and
economical possibilities and compared with the previous achievements.
proposes that the countries agree to the proposal of integrating
energy markets by introducing
schemes where a fraction of the electricity price is used for consumer
information and promotion of energy efficiency. These activities can
be organised by the distribution companies that by nature are not players
on the competitive market, or by special energy savings trusts. If the
activities are well organised, the savings that the consumers get
because of the activities will more than offset the fees they pay for
the activities. Recent evaluations of Danish electricity
efficiency programs proves that. Free-riding by including "business
as usual" as described below should be avoided.
Procedure for Adoption of the Directive
May 17, 2006: The Directive
entered into force and must be implemented two years later. The
countries should develop energy efficiency action plans before 30.
June 2007 for the first three-year period.
2006: The Directive was finally adopted as directive 2006/32.
EU energy minister adopted the Directive in the form proposed by
the EU Parliament 13/12 2005.
2005: The EU Parliament agreed to the proposal of the energy ministers with
targets of just 1% per year energy efficiency increase (9% in 9 years)
and only as an indicative target. In addition the countries must impose
on their energy suppliers and prepare national Energy Efficiency Action
June 28, 2005: The
energy ministers made a political agreement at their meeting June28.
did not agree the position of the Parliament as they
do agreed to only 6% increase in energy efficiency for the first
six years, no mandatory targets, and no special targets for the public
June 7, 2005: The
EU Parliament agreed to ask for targets June 7, the EU Parliament agreed
to ask for stronger targets.
They asked for progressive increasing targets of 1% per year for the
first 3 years (2006-2008),
1.3% for the for the next three years,
and 1.5% for the following three years. In addition they asked for higher
targets for the public sector, starting with 1.5% for the first years.
The Parliament also proposed that the targets should be mandatory.
March-April 2005: The proposal is
discussed in European Parliament in 2005. The Parliament's environmental
and energy committees
have proposed higher efficiency increases than the 1% per year, included
in the original proposal. The environmental committee proposed 2.5%/year
3% per year for the public sector.
November 29, 2004: The proposal was discussed at EU energy
ministers council, but no agreement was reached. Unfortunately the
are not all agreeing
with the above opinion of INFORSE-Europe.
Additionally the countries were limited in their decision-making
because they are waiting for the Parliaments opinion.
Spring 2004: Preliminary discussions took place in the EU Parliament
and in the EU countries in the spring of 2004. While conclusions from
preliminary, all countries
could accept EU-wide indicative energy efficiency targets, while some country
representatives had reservations to national indicative targets.
December 10, 2003: Proposed by the Commission
progress was available under the Parliament's website,
but as it is adopted it is not available any more there.