2010, 2009, 2008, 2007
Resources for the EU 27 for the Period of 2007-2013: Read
of the New Member States in the Period of 2007-2013: Read
|Updated: 2009/2008: Read
Financial Resources for
the EU 27 for the Period of 2007-2013:
The available resources amount to EUR 308.041 billion (in 2004 prices)
or 347.410 billion EUR (in
• 81.5 % for the convergence objective;
• 16 % for the Regional competitiveness and employment objective;
• 2.5 % for European territorial cooperation objective.
The source of the following graph and table is the Cohesion
Policy guide 2007-2013
file 4,5 MB) by
European Union Regional Policy, January 2007, 164p
Latest financial implementation
of the OP, until 30.04.2010.
file 12 kB)
Evaluation of the
New Member States in the Period of the 2007-2013
Friends of the Earth Europe and CEE Bankwatch Network are monitoring
plans for the use of EU Structural and Cohesion funds in the energy and
transport sectors of central and eastern European countries over the
next seven years. The analysis is being continuously updated based on
changing governments' plans in collaboration with our NGO colleagues
in central and eastern Europe.
The analysis shows that not enough is being done to promote energy efficiency,
renewable energy, and environment-friendly public transport in the new
member states. If the plans are not changed, the developments spurred
by EU funding will likely result in increasing greenhouse gas emissions,
as has happened previously with south European countries and Ireland.
EU Funds for Efficient and Renewable Energy
Central and eastern Europe has grossly wasteful energy usage and vast,
unexploited potential for renewable energy. For every euro of gross domestic
product, CEE countries consume 50 percent more energy than western Europe,
which works as a drag on their economies. Investments in energy savings
would reduce energy bills for schools, hospitals, municipalities, households
The share of renewable energy in electricity consumption in CEE countries
is only 6 percent as opposed to 15 percent in the EU-15 countries. A
funding spur for decentralised wind, solar or biomass energy projects
would create new jobs, provide a boost to local economies and cut their
dependency on external energy sources.
However, only 3.1 - 3.2 billion EUR (2 %) of the total EU funding allocation
of 157 billion Euros for CEE countries in 2007-2013 is planned for investment
in sustainable energy projects.
Source: Bankwatch and FoE-Europe
Poland and Hungary are the most worrying cases, planning to spend just
around one percent of their EU money on energy efficiency and renewable
energy projects (see chart). In contrast, Lithuania is planning to invest
more than five percent of its future EU funding in such projects.
EU Funds into Efficient and Renewable Energy, FOE Europe, 2007 (pdf
file 215 kB) by
Bankwatch Network and FoE-Europe, March 2010, 9p
The draft spending plans of most CEE countries ridicule the EU's newly
reformed cohesion policy, which emphasises energy efficiency and renewable
energy as one of the top investment priorities for the Structural and Cohesion
The record of Structural and Cohesion funds on climate change up until
now has been an unequivocal failure. The four countries that have so far
received the most EU money - Spain, Portugal, Greece and Ireland - have
also witnessed by far the greatest increases in greenhouse gas emissions
in the EU.
Greenhouse gas emissions of countries receiving the most EU funding (%
change 1990-2004) :
Greenhouse gas emissions dropped significantly in Central and Eastern European
countries in the 1990s due to economic restructuring, but they are now
rapidly rising again.
Friends of the Earth Europe and CEE Bankwatch Network are urging the Commission
and the member states to revise the plans:
least five percent of all EU funds in each member state should be specifically
allocated for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects
other EU-funded investments in buildings and housing should systematically
integrate all available energy-saving measures and renewable energy sources
The report is endorsed by associations of European cities promoting sustainable
energy (Energie-cites), the renewable energy industry (EREC) and Europe's
leading companies manufacturing energy saving products (EuroAce).
• Transparency. Commitment of beneficiary and donor to make publicly available
the basic data of the project. Information about the projects, which were
approved, why they were approved and why the others were rejected.
• Public Awareness. Community leaders do not know much about RE and how
they can benefit from it.
• Small vs. big projects. Small decentralised RE projects in rural areas
• Lack of skilled persons.
• Public (NGO involvement is missing.
Present programming period (2007 - 2013)
• The biggest potential in EE area is in insulation of buildings (savings
of 30 --40 % of energy consumption) --no impact of SF yet.
• Effective way to finance insulation of multi --story apartment buildings
(50% of households) through SF is missing. Energy savings would offset
the renovation costs. savings would offset the renovation costs.
• Public sector can benefit most but has no big interest in RE. Risk that
old district heating systems (around 40% of households in CEE is connected
to them) based on coal or oil boilers will not be converted to modern and
efficient boilers based e.g. on biomass. based e.g. on biomass.
• Biomass heating (biggest and most cost effective way of RE utilization)
very slow development despite huge potential and various forms of support.
You can find more information about this on
The EU structural funds are supposed to be the major financial tool towards
development of renewables and energy efficiency in the new EU member states.
The new programming period was set to start from 2007. The whole year 2007
and even the largest part of the 2008 were devoted to the preparation of
programming documents (operating plans) on national level and final approval
at European Commission. Thus the first calls for applications were launched
only in 4th quarter of 2008. It is obvious that there were no projects funded
in 2008 in many new EU member states e.g. in the Slovak and Czech republics.
During the 4th quarter of 2008 were all national documents published and
first calls applications issued.
Setting up the national administrative structure
was another important issue. In many countries major changes with respect
to previous programming
period were introduced. In Slovakia e.g. the new rules and application
requirements led to the fact that those projects which were approved
by the national committees but not financed in the last programming
period needed new project documentation in new programming period and
thus were delayed by several years. This was the fate of one of the
best projects in region which can serve as the example for the NGOs
in Central and east European countries. The project of Slovak NGO CEPA
originally was proposed in 2003. It is oriented on substitution of
coal fired heating boilers by biomass ones in 9 small villages in countryside
Slovakian region - Polana. Due to administrative delays is going
to be realised in 2009. This project is also supported by FAE Slovakia
(INFORSE-Europe member). Read
about the project in the database here or
at FAE's website here.
the new round of distribution of European funds (2007-2013) the EU set
3 cohesion policy priorities:
1. Convergence objective
2. Competitiveness and Employment objective
3. European Territorial Cooperation objective
All these issues will be financed by structural
and cohesion funds where structural fund includes European Regional
Development Fund (ERDF)
and European Social Fund (ESF).
The budget of the European cohesion
policy represents about 36% of the total EU budget for the period 2007-2013.
A greater proportion
of the overall budget will be allocated to the poorest regions where
the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita is lower than the EU average.
The above mentioned three objectives determine the eligibility of
the regions to use the European Funds. They also include provisions
related to the sustainable energy issues. Each member state should
comply with these priorities when preparing its national strategy and
Objectives and the use of funds:
1. Convergence objective (financed from ERDF, ESF, Cohesion Fund).
ERDF will be used for:
· Improving security of supply.
· Clean Transport.
· Improvement of energy efficiency and development of renewable energies.
Cohesion Fund will be used for:
· Transport and environment (as in the previous period but on a sustainable
basis and with clear environmental benefit in the field of energy efficiency
and renewable energy sources - new approach).
2. Regional competitiveness and employment objective (ERDF, ESF).
ERDF will be used for:
· Stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy production.
· Development of efficient energy management systems.
· Promoting clean and sustainable transport in urban areas.
3. European territorial cooperation objective (ERDF).
ERDF will be used for:
· Reducing isolation through improved access to energy systems, enhanced
inter-operability of national and regional systems.
· Networking, exchange of experiences and good practice.
Distribution of the total EU cohesion policy budget: € 347 billion
(current prices) is following :
|Competitiveness and Employment objective
|European Territorial Cooperation objective
Which Regions are Eligible
The whole EU is covered by one or several objectives of the cohesion
policy. To determine geographic eligibility, the Commission bases its
decision on statistical data. Europe is divided into various groups
of regions corresponding to the classification known by the acronym
States, which Gross National Income is lower than 90% of the
EU average can benefit from cohesion
that is all the regions
of the following countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia,
Greece, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Portugal,
Slovenia, and Slovakia
A phasing-out system is granted
to Member States, which would have been eligible for the Cohesion
the threshold had stayed at
90% of the Gross National Income average of the EU at 15 and
not at 25. This only concerns Spain.
1. Convergence objective
Regions at level 2 of the NUTS classification whose Gross Domestic
Product per inhabitant is less than 75% of the EU average are eligible
for funding under the Convergence objective. They include:
- Bulgaria: the whole territory.
Republic: Støední Èechy, Jihozápad,
Severozápad, Severovýchod, Jihovýchod, Støední Morava,
- Germany: Brandenburg-Nordost,
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Chemnitz, Dresden, Dessau, Magdeburg,
- Estonia: the whole territory
- Greece: Anatoliki Makedonia, Thraki, Thessalia, Ipeiros, Ionia Nisia,
Dytiki Ellada, Peloponnisos, Voreio Aigaio, Kriti
Andalucía, Castilla-La Mancha,
- France: Guadeloupe,
Guyane, Martinique, Réunion
Dél-Dunántúl, Észak-Magyarország, Észak-Alföld,
- Italy: Calabria, Campania, Puglia, Sicilia
- Latvia: the whole territory
the whole territory
- Malta: the whole island
- Poland: the whole territory
Norte, Centro, Alentejo, Região Autónoma dos
- Romania: the whole territory
- Slovenia: the whole territory
Západné Slovensko, Stredné Slovensko,
- United Kingdom: Cornwall and Isles of Scilly, West Wales and the Valleys
A phasing-out system is granted to those regions which would have
been eligible for funding under the Convergence objective if the threshold
of 75% of GDP had been calculated for the EU at 15 and not at 25:
- Belgium: Province du Hainaut
- Greece: Kentriki Makedonia, Dytiki Makedonia, Attiki
Ciudad Autónoma de Ceuta, Ciudad Autónoma de
Melilla, Principado de Asturias, Región de Murcia
- Austria: Burgenland
- Portugal: Algarve
- Italy: Basilicata
- United Kingdom: Highlands and Islands
2. Regional competitiveness and employment objective
All regions which are not covered by the Convergence objective or
by the transitional assistance (NUTS 1 or NUTS 2 regions depending
on the Member States) are eligible for funding under the competitiveness
and employment objective.
A phasing-in system is granted until 2013 to NUTS 2 regions which
were covered by the former Objective 1 but whose GDP exceeds 75% of
the average GDP of the EU-15.
Regions eligible for transitional assistance under the Competitiveness
and Employment objective:
- Éire-Ireland: Border, Midland
- Greece: Sterea Ellada, Notio Aigaio
- Spain: Canarias, Castilla y León,
- Italy: Sardegna
- Cyprus: tout le territoire
- Hungary: Közép-Magyarország
- Portugal: Região Autónoma
- Finland: Itä-Suomi
- United Kingdom: Merseyside, South Yorkshire
The main national documents related to the utilisation of EU funds
are called National Strategic Reference Frameworks (NSRF). They are
already prepared and the NGOs are strongly encourage to take a closer
look at it. In this document each member state defines:
- National thematic and territorial
priorities consistent with Community priorities.
- Regions eligible under Regional
competitiveness and employment objective.
- Operational programs.
- Indicative annual allocation
Funds are then allocated to thematic Operational Programmes (OP).
Each OP contains a set of priorities, eligible actions and beneficiaries.
The content of these documents is discussed and negotiated with the
European Commission (EC). When two parties reach an agreement, the
EC adopts the programmes and provides an advance to the MS to allow
them to set the programmes in motion.
Operational Programme is an official document
that covers different issue (e.g. OP Human Resources, OP Environment,
etc.) and contains
practical information such as actions and examples of projects it supports,
eligible beneficiaries, co-financing rates, information on managing
and implementing authorities etc. Many OP support the actions in the
field of sustainable energy although they are not directly linked to
environmental issues. Energy is sometimes hidden in the OP such as
Environment, Infrastructure, Regional OP or even OP Human Resources
that might support “soft actions” financed from the ESF,
such as professional trainings for installers of renewable energy technologies
or education of energy managers etc.
Managing authorities (usually ministries
or regional authorities) and implementing authorities (e.g. governmental
agencies) then ensure
smooth operation of individual OP. The extent to which the MS include
urban and sustainable energy issues into their OP and to which they
delegate management of funds to the regional and local authorities
varies from country to country.
How the Sustainable
Energy is Tackled by the NSRF?
EU cohesion policy is based on the strategic
document called Community Strategic Guidelines. This document was
elaborated by the European
Commission and the EU Member States. It contains several priorities
concerning environment and sustainable use of energy that will be supported
from the European Funds. Each Member State should comply with these
priorities when preparing its national strategy and operational programmes.
There are several OP supporting implementation of sustainable energy
projects already approved by the EC and published by member states.
Several others will follow soon.
The overview below is based on approved
and negotiated versions of OP in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Lithuania,
Poland, Slovakia, Romania
and Slovenia. The negotiated versions are a subject to change. Final
versions were scheduled to be approved by the EC by the end of 2007
and published on the websites of relevant managing authorities.
OP in new EU Member
States, which include Sustainable Energy issues in 2007-2013: