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of the Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings (2002/91/EC),
on “Building” Directive,
November 2009. Read
Negotiated in Trialogue, October 2009. Read
Consultation of EPBD, June 2008. Read
|· Background Read
the Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings (2002/91/EC) adopted
2010 the recast of the Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings
(EPBD) was adopted. The Directive is expected to be published in
the Official Journal in June.
This adoption happened
after that the EU
countries, the EU Parliament and the Commission agreed on compromise.
And after a 5-year process of review
evaluation. There was also a consulting period
in the internet. The consultation aimed to collect views from interested
the effectiveness and results of the Action Plan, and on how
best the EU may identify
and initiate improved policy actions and measures which contribute
to a maximum extent to the EU's energy saving targets.
The Directive is
the main legislative instrument at EU level to achieve energy performance
in buildings. Under this Directive, the Member States must apply minimum
requirements as regards the energy performance of new and existing buildings,
ensure the certification of their energy performance and require the
regular inspection of boilers and air conditioning systems in buildings.
The Directive seeks
to enable the European Union
to reduce greenhouse gases by at least
energy consumption by 20 % and
to increase to 20 % the share of renewable
energies in energy consumption
on “Building” Directive
In mid-November 2009,
the EU countries, Parliament and Commission agreed a compromise on
the recast of the Energy
Performance of Buildings Directive. The main new elements are:
requirements for renovations, including those of smaller buildings.
requirements for “technical building systems” such as heating & ventilation
systems as well as for components of the building envelope such as windows.
buildings shall be ”near zero energy buildings” after
2020, with energy coming mainly from renewables. Until then the
plans for construction of new zero energy buildings. Starting in
2019, new public buildings shall be “near zero energy”.
Harmonized methodology with a common framework for calculation of energy
demands, with a view to reach cost-optimal levels. By June, 2011,
the EU Commission shall establish a framework for calculating cost-optimal
levels of energy requirements.
• After 2012
the countries shall strengthen energy requirements if they are significantly
• For new buildings, the feasibility of renewable energy,
cogeneration, district heating and heat pumps shall be taken into account.
This is also the case for buildings undergoing major renovations. In
practice, a builder who does not want to choose any of these options
must justify his/her choices.
• The countries shall encourage
the use of intelligent metering systems.
The rules shall apply
2 1/2 years
after the directive is finally approved.
The final approval is expected in the first half of
2010, in which case the new rules shall apply in all
half of 2012.
The compromise retains some improvements over the existing
directive, but it also misses some crucial opportunities.
The strong requirements
of “near zero energy buildings” are postponed
to 2020, industrial sites and workshops are exempted,
support schemes for energy
efficiency that were proposed by the EU Parliament
are only included as a recommendation.
Recast Negotiated in Trialogue
In the negotiations
between EU Parliament, Commission and the countries, the countries
are reluctant to agree to many of the proposals of the
Commission (the original proposal) and Parliament. Even simpler issues
to solve: for instance an agreement
on how countries can set higher requirements than the EU minimum for
building systems (heating systems, ventilation systems etc., article
8 in the
draft) ) have been discussed between the Parliament and the countries
A big issue is the Parliament's demand that all new houses
should be built as zero-energy houses by 2019. This is still far from
The countries want to exchange "zero-energy houses" with low-energy
houses and the definition of low-energy houses is not very good. There
hopes for a compromise before the end of this year 2009. Also the proposal
is questioned by the countries, as well as the proposal to have building
codes to achieve cost-optimal houses. Instead the countries want
to see the level to be cost-efficient. The plan of the Swedish presidency
is still to have an agreement by the end of the year, but it might not
April 2009: The
update of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive was voted
by EU Parliament in April. The Parliament proposed to strengthen a
of elements including a requirement that new buildings become net-zero-energy
buildings by 2019, stronger requirements for
to lead in energy efficiency, introduction of smart meters, removal
of legal and market barriers for energy efficiency, obligation of
to have incentives for energy efficiency in buildings, and better
information for building users.
2008, the EU Commission launched its proposal for a new
Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) as part of the Energy
Security and Efficiency Package & Second Strategic
Energy Review. The main changes of the new proposal (COM 2008/780)
compared with the EPBD from 2002 are:
• National promotion
and national plans with clear targets for increasing the
number of buildings with low CO2–emissions
and primary energy consumption low
or equal to zero. Public authorities shall take a leading role with the
buildings they occupy.
• Minimum energy performance for new and renovated buildings. National
energy performance requirements of buildings shall gradually approach
cost-optimal levels in four steps. First the countries shall
set cost-optimal requirements using their own
the Commission will develop a comparative methodology and countries shall
take part in a comparison. From 30 June 2014, countries shall only provide
incentives for the
construction or renovation of buildings which comply with minimum
energy performance requirements based on harmonised calculation methods
(as far as countries give such incentives). Finally, from 30
June 2017, reviews
of minimum energy performance requirements shall
include that these requirements are cost-optimal using the results
of the harmonised calculation methodology.
• The obligation to consider renewable energy systems and
is extended to all new buildings (now it is only required for buildings above
• The threshold of 1000 m2 is deleted for meeting the national/regional
minimum energy performance requirements when the buildings undergo major renovation.
A major renovation is a renovation above 25% of the building value or with structural
renovation of more than 25% of the building
• Minimum energy
performance requirements for the installation of new or the replacement/major
retrofit of technical installations (boilers, heat distributions systems, ventilation,
• Energy performance certificates: strengthened and clarified
roles of their recommendations and the information they shall contain
.Certificates shall be provided every time there is a property transaction and
the prospective buyer or tenant must be informed of the energy
performance of the building/flat in an early stage (advertisements etc.)
• Clarifications on the frequency and reporting for inspections
of heating systems and air conditioning. This applies to boilers above 20 kW
including solid fuel boilers, heating systems above 100 kW that are to be
year, and air-conditioning above 12 kW.
handed over to the owner or tenant of
a building with
recommendations for cost-effective improvements.
• Requirements for skills and independence of experts for building
certificates and inspections of technical installations
• Independent control systems for the energy performance certificates and
the inspection reports.
• National information campaigns on the use of building certificates and
• Penalties if the countries do not implement the provisions,
depending on the size of the energy consumption
• The new directive shall be included in national legislation
31 December 2010 and fully implemented 31 January 2012 (if the
directive is adopted in 2009).
The new provisions
are expected to reduce the entire EU energy consumption with 6-8% in
2020, and reduce CO2 emissions similarly (if
the Directive is adopted in 2009).
the recast of the EPBD and is in favor of a rapid adoption and implementation
of the new directive. With the adoption,
the EU countries and Parliament must consider a few issues, including
the treatment of heat pumps that should not be treated equal
to other renewable energy sources because of their high electricity
Read the full directive
text and introduction from the EU Commission here.
As a first step in
the recast of the EPBD the EU Commission launched a public consultation
until June 20, 2008.
INFORSE-Europe's contribution (pdf
file 34kB) (June 2008)
the consultation and its background paper on the EU
Commission’s web site.
States states had to implement
the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive - EPBD (Directive
2002/91/EC) until January 2006, but first assessments in 2007-2008
gaps. By April 2008, the
had initiated 17 infringement cases against Member States that
have failed partially or completely to implement the Directive. Consequently,
and the EU Commission decided to recast the Directive. The aim of the
recasting is simplifying and clarifying the current Directive, strengthening
certain requirements, redefining minimum thresholds for the implementation
of the Directive, and making the role of national public sector
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