EU Climate and Energy Targets
the EU Summit in October 2014 the EU heads of states agreed upon climate
and energy targets for2030. The targets are:
least 40% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions 1990 - 2020.
least 27% renewable energy in 2030 as binding target on EU level
least 27% energy efficiency increase over baseline in 2030, as an indicative
target on EU level
addition the EU leaders agreed:
A target of electric interconnection targets
between EU countries of 10% in 2020 and 15% in 2030,
- To start a reform of the EU CO2 Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS),
governance system for climate and energy policies with key indicators
to assess progress, and
- Implementation of a North - South and a Southern Gas Corridor, for national
gas, though EU funds were not committed for this
greenhouse gas target is divided in a 43% reduction of emissions in
covered by the EU CO2 Emissions Trading Scheme
(EU-ETS) 2005-2030 and 30% reductions in the other sectors (housing
and small business, transport, agriculture), also for 2005 - 2030.
In the EU-ETS most allowances will be auctioned, but energy intensive
industries with competition problems will still get some allowances for
free and poor EU countries will be allowed to give up to 40%
of their allowances for free to their energy sectors. Of the allowances
auctioned, 2% of the proceeds will be given to a fund for improvements
of energy efficiency and modernization of energy systems in EU countries
of EU average, 10% will just be given to the EU countries with GDP/capita
below 90% of EU average, and proceeds of 400 million allowances will
be used for a facility for carbon capture and storage as well as for
renewable energy. The remaining proceeds will be shared among all EU
The 30% non-ETS target will be split into 28 national targets ranging
from 0% and 40% below their 2005 emissions. The efforts shall be distributed
on the basis of relative GDP per capita, which means that high-income
countries shall make the strongest reductions. However, the leaders also
agreed that targets for countries with high GDP shall be adjusted, if
they are not cost-effective. Further, a country can move its transport
sector into the EU-ETS, thereby replacing reduction requirements with
of cheap allowances.
the renewable energy target is said to be binding on EU-level, it will
not be split into national targets. The leaders
just agreed that the target "will be fulfilled through Member
contributions guided by the need to deliver collectively the EU target"
The energy efficiency target shall be fulfilled in a cost-effective manner,
and will also not be split into national targets. However, the energy efficiency
target will be reviewed in 2020, where the EU countries will consider
to increase it to
30% as proposed by the EU Commission.
2020 interconnection target of 10% is backed with agreements on EU
focus and possible support for interconnections
Portugal and the Baltic countries to rest of the EU, as well as from
These targets give EU a basis for engaging in international climate
discussions with a reduction commitment comparable to other large economies.
Unfortunately the targets are not as high as necessary to provide
to 2'C, according to INFORSE and other environmental NGOs. The renewable
energy target will require a slow down of the renewable energy
after 2020, where the target is 20%. The energy efficiency target will
only give an energy consumption 9% below the expected consumption in
2030, if the 2020 target is reached. In conclusion the 2030 targets
are both insufficient and unambitious.
INFORSE-Europe proposes 60% greenhouse gas reductions and 50% renewable
energy for the EU-28 by 2030.
the conditions for the targets:
the positive side, the 40% target is for reductions inside
EU (domestic actions), which is stronger
than if international emissions trading would be included.
On the negative side the renewable energy and energy efficiency
targets will not be divided into national targets, so it is unclear
each country should expand renewable energy use.
Another negative point is that it is unclear how the EU-ETS shall
be reformed. If it is maintained in its current, ineffective
will reduce the effect of the greenhouse gas target.
the agreement to expand gas corridors, this
lead to higher greenhouse gas emissions and will also go against development
of renewable energy.
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