Updated: June 2012
|Index of this
in the Final Climate & Energy Package (links updated 2009,
2010, 2011). Read
Policy for Europe (EPE) 2007-2008:
· · EU
Climate and Energy Package 2008 Adopted. Read
|· · EU
Climate and Energy Package Press Release (20.02.2008). Read
|· · EU
Climate and Energy Package 2008 (Target
2020, EU ETS, State Aid, Action Plan). Read
|· · INFORSE-Europe
Proposals to Renewable Energy Support in the January 2008 "Package". Read
for a Changing World". Read
May 2012. The EC
publishes guidelines for reviewing GHG inventories, which is necessary
limits for 2013-2020. The guidelines were prepared by the EEA with
Member States Experts in the EU Climate Change Committee. The review
will cover Member States’ emission inventories for the reference
years 2005, 2008 and 2010 and should be completed by August 2012.
After the review, later this year, the Commission will set the national
limits on emissions not covered by the EU ETS for 2013-2010 on the
basis of the reviewed and verified emissions data. These national
limits on annual non-ETS GHG emissions were previously laid down
by the 2009 Effort Sharing Decision. These emissions concern sectors
such as transport, buildings, agriculture and waste. Emissions from
land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) are not included
in the Effort Sharing Decision.
1 February 2012. Commission Staff Working Paper about “Analysis
of options beyond 20% GHG emission reductions: Member States results”.
It presents the options for moving to a 30% reduction by 2020 and it
analyzes the consequences at a Member State level.
Citizens’ summary here.
26 May 2010. The European Commission published a communication: “Analysis
of options to move beyond 20% greenhouse gas emission reductions and
assessing the risk of carbon leakage” which analysis the implications
for the European Union of the different levels of ambitions (20% and
30% targets). It served to facilitate a more informed debate about the
30% target by 2020.
in the Final Climate & Energy Package
Energy Directive, 2009/28/EC.
Emissions Trading Directive.
to reduce greenhouse gases with 20% from 1990 to 2020, including binding
national targets for reductions of emissions not covered by EU-ETS
(effort sharing), and a general decision to reduce
energy consumption by 20% in 2020 compared with projections. The decision
• Directive on geological
storage of CO2
on fuel quality that sets reduced levels of greenhouse gases from fuels
with blending of biofuels.
setting maximum CO2-emissions of averages of
new passenger cars sold.
Energy Policy for Europe (EPE) 2007-2008
Climate & Energy Package Adopted in December 2008
Just before Christmas 2008, the major EU
climate and energy package was adopted with compromises on a new
renewable energy directive, EU Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS) after
2012, effort sharing among EU countries to reach a 20% reduction in 2020
from 1990 (up to 30% with an international agreement), subsidies and
legislation for carbon capture and storage (CCS), subsidies for new power
plants, etc. Compared with the original proposal and the changes
proposed by the EU Parliament, the compromise leaves more loopholes for
countries to buy emission allowances instead of reducing own emissions
and give more allowances for free to greenhouse gas emitters. It leaves
important questions of EU financial contributions to a global climate
agreement to a coming EU summit in March 2009. The package was agreed
among the EU countries December 12, 2008 and was then agreed to by the
EU Parliament in the following week. Thus, no second reading was needed.
Climate and Energy Package Developments
2008: EU Parliament Agrees Strengthening the EU Package
After intense negotiations, the EU Parliament agreed to strengthen
the climate and energy package in a number of ways. Some of the highlight
- 50% of funding from auctioning of ETS emission allowances to be used for climate
change mitigation and adaptation to climate change, partly in developing countries.
- renewable energy in transport target (10% by 2020) should include a 2% renewable
electricity target and a 2% second generation biofuel target
- stronger greenhouse gas reduction requirements for biofuels in transport.
2008: Compromise on Biofuel and Renewables in Transport
As part of a compromise among EU countries on biofuels, also social
criteria and workers rights are included in the criteria for sustainable
biofuels. Another part of the compromise is a method for inclusion
of electricity in transport to reach the target for renewable energy
1, 2008:. Renewable Energy Certificate Compromise, not on Biofuels
In the end of June, a breakthrough was made in the negotiations on the
renewable energy directive, when a broad majority of countries agreed
upon a proposal from Germany, UK, and Poland. With the proposal it is
left to each country to decide to what extent renewables produced in
another country in the EU can benefit from its national support scheme
and to what extent renewables produced on its territory can benefit from
a national support scheme of another country. The Guarantees of Origin
(GO) will no longer be tradable throughout EU, as was proposed by the
Commission with the Package, but will still give proof of origin of the
related renewable energy.
The proposal also includes that countries may make statistical transfers
of renewables from one country to another within the EU to fulfill national
renewable energy targets.
biofuels the main outstanding issues are sustainability criteria, and
how mandatory the 10% target of renewables in transport
should be. On sustainability issues questions are how to ensure social
and environmental sustainability for production outside the EU if social
sustainability (that was not part of the original proposal, but that
all countries support) should be reported just by the producers, or by
the EU Commission, and if CO2 reductions with biofuels should be 35%
increasing to 50% in 2015 (the Slovene Presidency proposal) or more or
less, and how to calculate greenhouse gas emissions. On the 10% target,
many countries want to make it dependant on the opportunities to supply
sufficient amounts of sustainable produced biofuels. A special working
group of EU countries is meeting to regularly to discuss biofuel questions.
6, 2008:, Energy
Ministers held a debate on Climate Action and Renewable Energy
Package. The main goal of this debate was to prepare work of the
which will be achieved during the French Presidency from July to
December 2008. The debate focused on the directive on
the promotion of the use of energy from renewable energy sources.
The Presidency report especially stressed that further progress
should be made on biofuels assessment.
Read the press release on the EU
Council's website. (pdf
5, 2008: Environment
Ministers held a debate on Climate Action and Renewable Energy
Package. The debate focused on:
- The EU emission trading scheme (ETS) review
- The effort-sharing (reference year, intermediate target)
- Cross-cutting issues like an adjustment clause enabling Member
States to go further than the 20% target
- Carbon capture and storage (CCS)
- Sustainability criteria for biofuels (minimum GHG emissions savings
requirements, environmental and social criteria)
Environment Ministers confirmed the importance to achieve
ambitious targets with the view to facilitate global convergence
in the run
up of the
Copenhagen international meeting (December 2009). However, divisions
between Member States remained too deep and no agreement could be
Read the press release on the EU
8, 2008: The EU
rapporteur, Claude Turmes (MEP), had sent a draft report to his
fellow MEP's on the proposed renewable energy directive. This report
to drop the 10% biofuels targets, to strengthen the sustainability
criteria for biofuels, and to push for a greater focus on the use
of biomass. In addition, Claude
Turmes wants in the renewable energy
directive to introduce voluntary “Transfer Accounting Certificates” for
renewable energy as an alternative to “Certificates of Origin” and
to introduce further flexibility mechanisms for governments to
reach their renewable energy targets.
The report will be voted in July 2008 in the Environment and Industry
Committees. The plenary vote with a possible first reading agreement
with the Council will take place in September, 2008.
Euractiv.com. Read the full article here.
at the European Council, Prime Ministers confirmed the 30% GHG
reduction target (if other countries join an international agreement)
and they called for the adoption of a package of measures at
the latest early in 2009, before the election of new EU Parliament
and Commission. They acknowledged the importance of a single
Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) cap instead of the current national
caps and an emissions reduction trajectory. They concluded
highlighting the role citizens
have to play to change these policies into a success.
Read the conclusions of the European Council on
the EU Council's website. (pdf
March 3, 2008:
The EU environment ministers had a policy debate on the Energy
They welcomed the package including the
the proposals for changes in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. The
ministers concluded that:
"Carbon leakage" remains
a key concern (i.e. energy intensive industries might leave EU in case
capture and storage (CCS) is key for long-term reduction targets
- Sustainability criteria
for biofuels is of the utmost importance
is a need to reach a final agreement with the European Parliament
2009 at the latest.
And negotiations are then
February 28, 2008: The
EU energy ministers had an orientation debate on the Energy Package.
Ministers welcomed the package and expressed their
support in general to the package and its renewable energy directive.They
also found the national targets very ambitious and required substantial
flexibility regarding how to reach the targets. They agreed that there
is a need for ambitious sustainability criteria for biomass. Some ministers
stressed the need for fast adoption of the measures, some found
too ambitious, and some stressed the need for sustainability criteria
for all biomass.
Negotiations will now continue to reach an agreement.
February 10, 2008: The
EU Ministers for Finance and Economy (Ecofin) found that it is important
ensure that the shift toward a low carbon economy won’t harm the
competitiveness of the EU industries. They also insisted that incomes
for the countries
generated by the auctioning of greenhouses gas emissions allowances from
EU Emissions Trading should not be subject to mandatory earmarking at
EU level and their use should not be opposed to EU climate change targets.
Read the press release of the Ecofin Council on the EU Council's website: (pdf
Climate and Energy Package Press Release 20.02.2008:
file 188kB) (20.02.2008)
file 76 kB). (23.01.2008)
Climate and Energy Package 2008
the agreements on a European energy policy and climate targets,
the EU Commission launched a packet with legal measures to implement
policy targets. It included:
Target 2020 -
A directive for renewable energy including national targets to
reach 20% renewable
in 2020 by the EU-27
in average, a 10% biofuels target in transport by 2020, sustainability
criteria for biofuels/agrofuels, renewable energy (RE) certificates
mainly among countries, and others. It will replace directives
in electricity supply and transport.
ETS - A proposal for burden sharing among the EU countries, dividing
covered by EU emissions trading (EU-ETS - about 40% of emissions)
and other sectors. The EU Commission will take responsibility for
while the proposal sets targets for national targets for the other
sectors. The proposal includes a 20% reduction in 1990-2020, which
includes a 6% reduction 1990-2005 for the 27 EU countries
in average. The reduction target is divided into a 21% reduction
of sectors covered by EU-ETS for
a 10% average reduction of sectors not covered by EU-ETS in 2005-2020,
with national targets ranging from 20% reductions to 20% increases
socialist countries that had large reductions in 1990-1995. Germany
have taken the lead with national strategies for 40% greenhouse
and 30% renewable energy by 2020.
- State Aid - A
revised guidelines for state aid that allows higher state-aid for
but introduces state aid for Carbon Capture and Storage.
Read more about the EU Energy Package
2008 on the EU
Commission's Integrated Proposal on Climate Action website.
Proposals to Renewable Energy Support in the January 2008 "Package"
welcomes the climate and energy package but regrets the lack of plans
30% greenhouse gas reduction 1990-2020 and also regrets the proposal
to allow state aid for Carbon Capture and Storage. See Press
Release. 23.01.2008, (pdf
file 76 kB).
that the EU renewable energy target shall be 25% renewable energy by
2020, equal to an average increase of 18% in the EU countries from
2005 (7% in 2005 + 18% = 25%). Read also EU
is essential for the success of this that the support mechanisms for
are effective and that they lead to development of renewable energy
in all 27 EU countries. The experience with the success of the German
wind power and solar energy use shows that even countries with less
favorable weather conditions for renewable energy can successfully
develop their renewable energy sector. The key is a support system
that provides long-term investment security such as the feed-in regulation
for renewable electricity. The proposed system for certificates of origin
can threaten effective national support schemes, if it allows trade
outside of the national frameworks. It is important that the
current proposal is changed to ensure better that this will not happen.
Renewable Heating and Cooling
The EU will not reach the 20% renewable energy target without sufficient
focus on renewable heating and cooling that must be supported similarly
to renewable electricity. Policies to promote renewable heating and cooling
must be sufficient to realise the targets and must match the many small
heating systems that exist, e.g. in individual houses, as well as larger
systems with district heating and for industrial processes. As a set
of general policies for promotion of renewable heating and cooling that
will be important for all EU countries INFORSE-Europe proposes:
- Awareness raising campaigns targeted to the potential users as well
as training of heating professionals, including designers and architects
- Consumer information with independent information, targeted to heat
users that are about to change or renovate their heating systems
- Financial incentives with investments subsidies for introduction of
renewable heating and cooling in new sectors and with new technologies,
- Loans and loan guarantees for renewable heating and cooling,
- Obligations to cover a minimal share of the heat demand from renewables
and to integrate passive heating and cooling designs in new buildings
and those undergoing major renovation, as part of building regulations.
- Preference over fossil-fuel based heating, including in district heating.
This must include feed-in systems as for renewable electricity.
- Demonstration projects for innovative applications less close to competitiveness,
like renewable cooling and solar process heat
- Continued research and development to improve technologies, solutions
and integration into buildings and energy systems
The support schemes for renewable heat should be limited to heat production
where inputs of fossil energy and electricity together are less than
20% of the heat produced. It should also be limited to sustainable use
For some countries other measures should supplement above list:
- In countries with cooling demands are needed specific, stronger incentives
to promote renewable cooling, as it is at an earlier stage of market
development than most heating applications
- In countries that receive structural funds the must be increased use
of this funding for renewable heating and cooling, as well as for other
renewables. Strategies to achieve this must be implemented.
Renewable Energy in transport is the third pillar for the development
of renewable energy in Europe, even though it is less important to
reach a 20-25% target in 2020 than the electricity and heating/cooling
sectors. INFORSE-Europe welcomes that the10% biofuels target is effectively
replaced with a 10% sustainable transportation targets that should
lead to increased focus
on electric and hydrogen driven transportation as well as measures
to reduce transport demand and promote more efficient modes of transport,
such as electric trains. Given current, large problems with sustainability
of biofuels INFORSE-Europe also proposes a moratorium on support and
import of biofuels from large-scale monocultures (agrofuels). This
must be in place until the most urgent sustainability problems of agrofuel
developments are solved, such as the destruction of rainforest in Indonesia
and Brazil that pushes these countries to the top of the list of world
greenhouse gas emitters, and the many social problems related to expanded
To supplement the promotion of renewable electricity, heating/cooling
and transport, renewable-based gas production must enjoy the same rights
to feed into gas networks at a fair price that renewable electricity
Stop of subsidies for fossil fuel and nuclear energy
All subsidies and tax preferences for fossil fuels and nuclear energy
over renewable energy must be ended. This includes ending lower VAT
on fossil fuels than on renewable energy equipment and fuels.
Sustainability of Biomass
Promotion of renewable energy must be followed by criteria for sustainable
use of renewable energy. There is a specific need to address sustainability
issues of biomass for energy, including biofuels. In addition to the
moratorium of support and import of agrofuels, INFORSE-Europe proposes
the following measures for sustainability of biomass in the EU:
- Support schemes for biomass should be limited to biomass that is produced
in sustainable ways
- For biomass heating equipment should be introduced progressive standards
and labelling systems for energy efficiency and air pollution. The standards
should be strengthened every 5 years. Countries with high use of biomass
should be allowed to introduce higher standards to avoid local air pollution
problems in areas with large biomass combustion. This should be followed
by regular inspection of air pollution as part of mandatory safety checks
of boilers and ovens with visual inspection of chimney.
- For all biomass use, efficient use must be promoted, and inefficient
use excluded from support and targets. An example of a inefficient use
to be excluded is large-scale biomass fueled power production with low
efficiency power plants without use of the heat produced.
INFORSE-Europe Position on a file
(pdf, 160 kB)
for a Changing World"
March 8-9, 2007, the EU
Prime ministers agreed upon an Energy Policy for Europe (for EU-27)
including a firm
commitment to increase renewable energy to 20% of primary energy supply
EU-countries combined, increase energy efficiency with 20% by 2020
and increase biofuel in transport fuels in sustainable ways to 10%
by 2020. They also agreed on a 30% reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG)
emissions 1990 - 2020 on the condition that other countries also commit
and with a view to reduce GHG emissions 60-80% by 2050. If an international
agreement is not possible, they agreed that the EU countries should
reduce GHG emissions at least 20% for
Further the EU
leaders agreed to:
-better functioning of internal energy markets with better separation of production
and transmission companies,
-increased international cooperation to secure energy supply and to cooperate
with other energy importing countries on energy efficiency and renewable energy
-the development of a new directive on renewable energy
-strengthened cooperation on four high-priority Trans-European networks, including
an off-grid electric network for off-shore windpower, an electric link from Germany
and Poland to the Baltic countries (Baltic link), and a gas connection between
Turkey and Austria (Nabucco pipeline)
-continue and strengthen ongoing energy and climate policies such as the Action
plan on Energy Efficiency and the EU Emissions Trading Scheme that will be
evaluated and might be expanded to land-use emissions and transport.
Presidency Conclusions and INFORSE-Europe
Press Release (March 2007).
February 20, 2007, the
EU environmental ministers agreed at their meeting a 30% greenhouse
reduction target 1990 - 2020 on the condition that other industrialized
countries also commit themselves to greenhouse gas reductions and that
the more advances developing countries take similar measures. They
also agreed that if no global agreement is reached for reductions of
greenhouse gas emissions, the EU-27 will in any case reduce with 20%
in the period 1990 - 2020.
February 15, 2007,
the EU energy ministers agreed at their meeting to support a 20% renewable
energy target for
for the EU-27; but did not agree specific targets for renewable electricity,
heating & cooling or transport energy. They did, however, agree
a target of 10% biofuels in transport fuels.
January 10, 2007, the EU
Commission released its energy policy package "Energy
for a Changing World"
The package also includes:
- a communication “An Energy Policy for Europe”
- a “Renewable Energy Roadmap”
- a progress report on renewable electricity
- a progress report on biofuels for transport
- report on the implementation of the regulation of the internal electricity
- a priority interconnection plan for electricity and gas
- a communication on carbon capture and storage
- a communication of a Strategic Energy Technology Plan
- a nuclear power illustrative program with potential future scenarios for nuclear
press release 01.2007 (pdf 130kB) and INFORSE-Europe
comments 2007 (pdf 41 kB) to the renewable
energy roadmap and communications on renewable electricity and biofuels,
Commission's Energy Package Page
December 14, 2006, the
European Parliament agreed a report on the EU Energy
Strategy. It includes a call for an EU target for energy efficiency
of at least
20% by 2020 and calls on the EU Commission to propose to set binding
sectoral targets for renewables in order to achieve 25% of renewables
in primary energy
by 2020, with a road map at Council and Commission level for reaching
a target for renewables of 50% by 2040. In addition, the report calls
for an EU 30% reduction of the CO2 target for 2020 and a 60-80% reduction
In July-August 2006,
the EU Commission made a public hearing about their Green
Paper on Energy, where INFORSE-Europe and many others responded.
On March 24, 2006, the
EU Heads of State agreed to the strengthening of EU’s
energy policies. The leaders discussed a number of issues. They agreed
that the discussion should continue; and they agreed regarding the
In accordance with a European Commission
analysis, they agreed to increase the share of renewables to 15%
by 2015 (the target for 2010 is 12%)
They discussed to increase the share of
renewable energy (primarily biofuels) to 8% in
is 5.75% in
They proposed to increase cross-border
energy exchanges to 10% of installed production
has 10,000 MW of installed power
capacity, its electric interconnectors with other countries should be
at least 1,000 MW.
INFORSE-Europe and many
others welcome that at least some targets are set for renewable energy
after 2010, even
though the 2015 targets are
unambiguous and low compared with the need to cut greenhouse gas emissions.
INFORSE-Europe has called for a target of 25% renewable energy by 2020,
and a specific target of 25% renewable heat and cooling by 2020. Read INFORSE-Europe
Position on a New EU Energy Policy (77kB pdf file).
INFORSE-Europe will continue to follow the development of a new EU policy
and take part
March 14, 2006, the EU’s energy ministers
agreed to the development of a European energy policy and asked the
Council of EU prime
ministers to endorse it. They proposed a policy based on the three objectives
of security of supply, competitiveness and environmental sustainability.
The proposals of the ministers are not a revolution for EU policy; but
rather highlighting a number of existing proposals, extending them, and
lifting them to higher levels. It is not a go-ahead for renewable energy
or energy efficiency, nor is it the green light for nuclear power or
carbon sequestration. It is, however, partly a green light for public
support and subsidies for gas and electricity infrastructure, which can
be worrying seen from an environmental perspective. The ministers conclusion
follows the EU Commission Green
Paper on Energy from March 8, 2006.
The main proposals of the ministers were:
1. Develop a shared vision for the EU countries of long-term supply
2. Develop a common foreign and trade policy approach to meet the
objectives. For the policy is proposed dialogues with energy producer,
transit, and (large) consumer countries, revitalize the EU-Russia
cooperation on development of sustainable and efficient energy systems, harmonization
of energy standards for products at international level.
3. Diversification of external as well as indigenous sources, with support
from EU’s R & D programs, and through common approaches with respect
to crisis situations.
4. Develop a strategy for exporting the internal energy market approach to
neighboring countries. A specific proposal is to speed up the start of the
start of the new South-East European Energy Community and possibly extend
it to more countries.
5.Ensure full, effective and transparent implementation of internal market
6. Accelerate the development of regional energy cooperation inside the EU,
facilitating the integration of regional markets into and further development
and interconnection of
the EU internal market (this is a go-ahead to increase subsidies for gas
and electricity infrastructure)
7. Adopt a realistic and ambitious Action Plan on Energy Efficiency. The
target of 20% by 2020 is mentioned. In addition is mentioned a specific initiative
on energy efficiency in the transport sector.
8. Develop a long-term strategy on renewables (Road map, beyond 2010) and
implement the Biomass Action Plan. It includes reduction of legislative and
obstacles to renewables by facilitating access to grid, cutting administrative
red-tape and ensuring the
transparency, effectiveness and certainty of support policies
9. Complete the review of the EU ETS as an instrument to achieve climate
objectives in a cost-effective manner
The ministers conclusion does not change
fundamentally the energy policy scene; but it paves the way for a process
be used to boost sustainable
energy, nuclear power, carbon capture & storage as well as new energy
infrastructure (gas and electricity lines, power plants, etc). In this
process priorities have to be made, and there are vested interests that
will continue to lobby to limit the promotion of energy efficiency and
renewable energy. Thus it is crucial that the ideas of increased use
of renewable energy and energy efficiency are converted into real changes
in the policies on EU-level.
Read the Ministerial
March 8, 2006, the EU Commission released
a Green Paper on Energy
to EU policies
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