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INFORSE WSSD Task Force Info 4
Never before have so many people spoken so much on renewable energy at a UN event, but what came out of the World Summit for Sustainable Development?
Read the texts related to sustainable energy from the WSSD - Plan of Implementation -

Energy is included many places in the “Plan of Implementation” adopted at WSSD. Two big disappointments in the plan is that it does not have targets for renewable energy and that it does not have plans for phase- out of subsidies. These points were negotiated to the end WSSD, but without the big result that many had hoped for.

Poverty Eradication and Energy
High on the agenda was eradication of poverty following the “Millenium Goals” of halving poverty by 2015. The main instruments according to the Plan of Implementation will be a world solidarity fund and national programmes for sustainable development to promote the empowerment of people living in poverty. A number of key issues for poverty eradication have got special attention in the document, including energy (see text below).

Energy for Sustainable Development
In the chapter on changing unsustainable development patterns, a long paragraph is devoted to energy. This paragraph is probably the most operational regarding sustainable energy, and if all the provisions for increase of renewable energy and energy efficiency, phase out of subsidies etc. were followed worldwide, we would be a long way towards sustainable development. Unfortunately the paragraph – lick most of the others - lacks targets, timeframes and mechanisms for implementation.
Throughout the paragraph renewable energy and energy efficiency are supported, but also “cleaner fossil fuels” and “advanced energy technologies” are supported (see box). While these are not further defined, the problem of this is that the text has several references to the 9th meeting of Commision for Sustainable Development (CSD9) that includes cleaner use of coal as part of “cleaner fossil fuels” and that nuclear energy as part of “advanced energy technologies”(nuclear energy or coal are not mentioned in the from Johannesburg). The battle has already started between officials of different countries on how the text should be udnerstood: does it include support for nuclear energy or not.

Energy Integration
Energy is mentioned in 14 other paragraphs. The need for energy efficiency is stressed in transport and for water desalination, the role of energy in the combat of desertification and for development of small island development states is stressed, programmes are proposed for support of the African NEPAD objective to secure access to (modern) energy for at least 35 per cent of the African population within 20 years. To improve health is proposed assistance to reduce dependence on traditional fuel sources which affect the health of women and children. In a paragraph on climate change is a call to develop and disseminate innovative technologies in particular in the energy sector. In a paragraph on transport of radioactive material, governments are encouraged to improve measures regarding safety for transport in the sea and across borders, including prior notification and consultations (with transit countries). In a paragraph on (not radioactive) waste is proposed to develop waste management systems that include technologies to capture the energy in waste. The last proposal is problematic since waste-to-energy systems often are incinerators that in many cases considerable environmental problems.

CSD to Manage Energy
While many NGOs and several countries had hoped for a strengthening of sustainable energy in the international institutions, only one institutional change are included: it is proposed to transfer the work of the UN Committee on Energy and Natural Resources for Development to the CSD. While this looks like a weakening, it can actually be a strengthening since this committee has never worked well, while CSD at least is working.

PLAN OF IMPLEMENTATION\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'
(unedited version)

Text on Energy for poverty eradication: Plan of Implementation §8
Take joint actions and improve efforts to work together at all levels to improve access to reliable and affordable energy services for sustainable development sufficient to facilitate the achievement of the millennium development goals (of eradication of poverty), ........ This would include actions at all levels to:
(a) Improve access to ... energy services and resources, ...., through .... enhanced rural electrification and decentralized energy systems, increased use of renewables, cleaner liquid and gaseous fuels and enhanced energy efficiency, by intensifying regional and international cooperation in support of national efforts, including through capacity-building, financial and technological assistance and innovative financing mechanisms, ..., recognizing the specific factors for providing access to the poor;
(b) Improve access to modern biomass technologies and fuelwood sources and supplies, and commercialize biomass operations,..............;
(c) Promote a sustainable use of biomass and, ....... through improvement of current patterns of use, such as management of resources, more efficient use of fuelwood and.........;
(d) Support the transition to the cleaner use of liquid and gaseous fossil fuels, where considered more environmentally sound, socially acceptable and cost-effective;
(e) Develop national energy policies and regulatory frameworks that will help to create the ...... conditions in the energy sector to improve access to ........ energy services for sustainable development and poverty eradication........;
(f) Enhance international and regional cooperation to improve access to..... energy services, as an integral part of poverty reduction programmes, by facilitating the creation of enabling environments and addressing capacity-building needs, with special attention to rural and isolated areas, as appropriate;
(g) Assist and facilitate on an accelerated basis, with the financial and technical assistance of developed countries, including through public-private partnerships, the access of the poor to .......... energy services, taking into account the instrumental role of developing national policies on energy for sustainable development, ......

Par 19. Call upon Governments, .....regional and international organizations ...., to implement, ....... the recommendations and conclusions of the Commission on Sustainable Development concerning energy (CSD 9 )........ This would include actions at all levels to:
(a) Take further action to mobilize the provision of financial resources, technology
transfer, capacity-building and the diffusion of environmentally sound technologies..... according to the (CSD9) recommendations .... decision 9/1 section A, paragraph 3, and section D, paragraph 30,.......;
(b) Integrate energy considerations, including energy efficiency, affordability and
accessibility, into socio-economic programmes, especially into policies of major energy-consuming sectors, and into the planning, operation and maintenance of long-lived energy
consuming infrastructures, ..........;
(c) Develop and disseminate alternative energy technologies with the aim of giving a
greater share of the energy mix to renewable energies, improving energy efficiency and greater reliance on advanced energy technologies, including cleaner fossil fuel technologies;
(d) Combine, as appropriate, the increased use of renewable energy resources, more
efficient use of energy, greater reliance on advanced energy technologies, including advanced and cleaner fossil fuel technologies, and the sustainable use of traditional energy resources, ..............;
(e) Diversify energy supply by developing advanced, cleaner, more efficient, affordable
and cost-effective energy technologies, including fossil fuel technologies and renewable energy technologies, hydro included, and their transfer to developing countries on concessional terms as mutually agreed. With a sense of urgency, substantially increase the global share of renewable energy sources with the objective of increasing its contribution to total energy supply, recognizing the role of national and voluntary regional targets ......., and ensuring that energy policies are supportive to developing countries’ efforts to eradicate poverty, and regularly evaluate available data to review progress to this end;
(f) Support efforts, ........... to reduce flaring and venting of gas associated with crude oil production;
(g) Develop and utilize indigenous energy sources and infrastructures for various local
uses and promote rural community participation, including local Agenda 21 groups, with the support of the international community, in developing and utilizing renewable energy
technologies to meet their daily energy needs to find simple and local solutions;
(h) Establish domestic programmes for energy efficiency, ............ with the necessary support of the international community;
(i) Accelerate the development, dissemination and deployment of affordable and cleaner
energy efficiency and energy conservation technologies, as well as the transfer of such
technologies, in particular to developing countries, on favourable terms, ....
(j) Recommend that international financial institutions and other agencies’ policies
support developing countries, as well as countries with economies in transition, in their own efforts to establish policy and regulatory frameworks which create a level playing field between the following: renewable energy, energy efficiency, advanced energy technologies, including advanced and cleaner fossil fuel technologies, and centralized, distributed and decentralized energy systems;
(k) Promote increased research and development in the field of various energy
technologies, ........., both nationally and through international collaboration; strengthen national and regional research and development institutions/centres on ....... energy for sustainable development;
(l) Promote networking between centres of excellence on energy for sustainable
development, including regional networks, by linking competent centres on energy technologies for sustainable development that could support and promote efforts at capacity-building and technology transfer activities, particularly of developing countries, as well as serve as information clearing houses;
(m) Promote education to provide information for both men and women about available
energy sources and technologies;
(n) Utilize financial instruments and mechanisms, in particular the Global Environment
Facility (GEF), within its mandate, to provide financial resources to developing countries, in particular least developed countries and small island developing States, to meet their capacity needs for training, technical know-how and strengthening national institutions in .... energy, including promotion....;
(o) Support efforts to improve the functioning, transparency and information about
energy markets ......with the aim of achieving greater stability and predictability and to ensure consumer access to reliable, affordable, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy services;
(p) Policies to reduce market distortions would promote energy systems compatible with
sustainable development through the use of improved market signals and by removing market distortions, including restructuring taxation and phasing out harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, .......;
(q) Take action, where appropriate, to phase out subsidies in this area that inhibit
sustainable development, taking fully into account the specific conditions and different levels of development of individual countries and considering their adverse effect, particularly on developing countries;
(r) Governments are encouraged to improve the functioning of national energy markets
in such a way that they support sustainable development, ......,
(s) Strengthen national and regional energy institutions or arrangements for enhancing
regional and international cooperation on energy for sustainable development, in particular to assist developing countries in their domestic efforts to provide ...... energy services to all sections of their populations;
(t) Countries are urged to develop and implement actions within the framework of the
.....(CSD9), including through public-private partnerships,............;
(u) Promote cooperation between international and regional institutions and bodies
dealing with different aspects of energy for sustainable development within their existing
mandate, bearing in mind paragraph 46 (h) of the Programme of Action for the Further
Implementation of Agenda 21, strengthening, as appropriate, regional and national activities for the promotion of education and capacity-building regarding energy for sustainable development;
(v) (on co-operation for interconnection of gas and electricity grids);
(w) (on dialogue forums among producers and consumers of energy).

Par20 (on transport). Promote an integrated approach to policy-making ..... for transport services and systems to promote sustainable development, including policies and
planning for land use, infrastructure, public transport systems and goods delivery networks, with a view to providing ........ increasing energy efficiency,
reducing pollution, .......This would include actions at all levels to:
(a) Implement transport strategies for sustainable development, ...... to .... reduce
greenhouse gas emissions, including through the development of better vehicle technologies ........;
(b) Promote investment and partnerships for the development of sustainable, energy
efficient multi-modal transportation systems, including public mass transportation systems and better transportation systems in rural areas, with technical and financial assistance for developing countries and countries with economies in transition.

Sub-par 21a (in par. on waste) Develop waste management systems, with highest priorities placed on waste prevention and minimization, reuse and recycling, and environmentally sound disposal facilities, including technology to recapture the energy contained in waste, ....;

25 f (on water) Support, where appropriate, efforts and programmes for energy-efficient, sustainable and cost-effective desalination of seawater, water recycling......., through such measures as technological, technical and financial assistance and other modalities;

33.bis Governments, taking into account their national circumstances, are encouraged,
recalling paragraph 8 of resolution GC (44)/RES/17 of the General Conference of the
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and taking into account the very serious potential for environment and human health impacts of radioactive wastes, to make efforts to examine and further improve measures and internationally agreed regulations regarding safety, while stressing the importance of having effective liability mechanisms in place, relevant to international maritime transportation and other transboundary movement of radioactive material, radioactive waste and spent fuel, including, inter alia, arrangements for prior notification and consultations done in accordance with relevant international instruments.

36 Change in the Earth’s climate and its adverse effects are a common concern of humankind. We remain deeply concerned that all countries, ................, face increased risks of negative impacts of climate change ......... The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the key instrument for addressing climate change, a global concern, and we reaffirm our commitment to achieving its
ultimate objective of stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere.........Actions at all level are required to:
(f) Develop and disseminate innovative technologies in respect of key sectors of
development, particularly energy, and of investment in this regard, including through private sector involvement, market-oriented approaches, as well as supportive public policies and international cooperation;

37. Enhance cooperation at the international, regional and national levels to reduce air
pollution, including transboundary air pollution, acid deposition...........

39d (paragraph on Desertification) Integrate measures to prevent and combat desertification as well as to mitigate the effects of drought through relevant policies and programmes, such as land, water and forest management, ........, energy,....;

43. .... Sustainable forest management of both natural and planted forests and for timber and non-timber products is .... a critical means to .... improve ... access to ..... affordable energy;

Par. 49d (paragraph on health) Assisting developing countries in providing affordable energy to rural communities, particularly to reduce dependence on traditional fuel sources for cooking and heating, which affect the health of women and children.

53. Support the availability of adequate, affordable and environmentally sound energy services for the sustainable development of small island developing States by, inter alia:
(a) Strengthening ongoing and supporting new efforts on energy supply and services, by
2004, including through the United Nations system and partnership initiatives;
(b) Developing and promoting efficient use of sources of energy, including indigenous
sources and renewable energy, and building the capacities of small island developing States for training, technical know-how and strengthening national institutions in the area of energy management;

56j (paragraph on sustainable development for Africa) Deal effectively with energy problems in Africa, including through initiatives to:
(i) Establish and promote programmes, partnerships and initiatives to support
Africa’s efforts to implement NEPAD objectives on energy, which seek to secure access for
at least 35 per cent of the African population within 20 years, especially in rural areas;
(ii) Provide support to implement other initiatives on energy, including the
promotion of cleaner and more efficient use of natural gas and increased use of renewable
energy, and to improve energy efficiency and access to advanced energy technologies,
including cleaner fossil fuel technologies, particularly in rural and peri-urban areas;

60(d) (paragraph on water) Protect water resources, ...., as well as, in cases of most acute water scarcity, support efforts for developing non-conventional water resources, including the energy-efficient, cost-effective and sustainable desalination of seawater, .....

126(e) (on UN ECOSOC) Terminate the work of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources for Development and transfer its work to the Commission on Sustainable Development;

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