Wind Energy in Hungary
In Hungary, numerous experimental and commercial wind-generators have been
supported in the framework of the Government´s Széchényi-Plan since
2000. The Szechenyi Plan was initiated as a tool to vitalise Hungary´s
economy. As a result of considerable lobbying, the Plan highlighted wind power
among its priorities, due to that it is an environmental friendly way to produce
electricity and it decreases the countries import dependence of energy. Presently
more than 70% of the country's energy consumption comes from import, and this
requires HUF 500 billion per year to guarantee it. Hungary also tries to meet
the European Eunions requirements. The European Union aims to increase the
renewable energy share of the total energy consumption from 6% to 12% by 2010.Therefore,
the government's energy program until 2010 gives priority to and provides subsidies
for the distribution of renewable energy resources and energy conservation.
The share of renewables is planed to increase from 3% to 6% by 2010. To support
this e.g., in 2001, as a part of the Széchenyi Plan, a non-refundable
subsidy of HUF 350 million was set to be awarded for the expansion of renewable
In Hungary, there is an uncertainity how big is the wind energy potential, while
there is no country-sized wind energy map. Even though, windmills started their
way to Hungary. The first 250-kW generator was installed on the territory of
the thermal plant at Inota in 2000. After 6 months from its opening, a new 600-kW
wind-generator was set into operation at Kulcs in June 2001 and 2 more wind-generator
are under installation in 2002-03.
600-kW Grid Connected Wind Mill in Kulcs
The first grid connected 600 k-W nominal capacity wind mill started its operation
in the summar of 2001. It is situated 59 km south from Budapesttolclose to
Kulcs on the bank of the Danube, on the top of a hill (166 m above see level)
in a frugt plantage.
Wind Energy Measurement
The Kulcs project was promoted by the First Hungarian Wind Power Plant Company
(Elso Magyar Szeleromu Tarsasag - EMSZT). The wind energy measurements commenced
on the top of the 35-m high water tower in March 1999, with assistance from
the Agro-Energetic Department of the "St. Stephen" University at
Gödöllõ. The averagy wind speed was 6,2 m/s. Nearly, one
year after evaluating the results of the initial tests, the decision was
made that it was worthwhile to set up a wind power plant of 600 kW at the
Kulcs location. After the decision, EMSZT made preparations with the financial
and professional support of E.ON Hungaria Rt., then constructed the first
Hungarian wind power plant for public supply. (The E.ON group has world-wide
experience on research and utilisation of wind energy, especially in Germany.
The utility which buys the electricity from the wind mill is part of the
The project development time schedule was:
Wind measurement: April 1999 - March 2000
Choosing producer and receiving buliding permission: 2000
Building Foundation: February, 2001
Installation and Test: May 15, 2001
Start operation: June 2001
The generator is 600- kW made by ENERCON.
Foundation with 12 m diamater and 1.5 m deep.
The diameter of the 3 blades is 44 meter.
The tower is 65 m high with a diameter of 2,4 m (down)- 1.2 m (top) weighing
94 tonnes. The sickness of the wall is in average of 20 mm.
It starts to workk at the wind speed of 2,5 m/s and stops when the wind sped
is more than 25 m/s.
The project costed HUF 200 million. From which:
- HUF 32.5 million was awarded by the Ministry of Economic Affairs as a non-refundable
- HUF 32.5 million subsidy and a 32.5 million interest-free loan granted by
the Ministry of Environment Protection for the building of the wind-power plant.
The test run showed that the wind power plant produces 1.5 million kWh of energy,
which covers the average energy demand of 750 families. The energy generated
is bought by DÉDÁSZ (Electricity Producer Company of the South-Transdanubia),
an E.ON group company. It is connected to the grid with a 20-kV cabel.
This installation generated 1200 MWh energy in the last one and a half year.
This example proved, that it is possible to utilise wind-power in Hungary,
although its realisation and its returns cannot be operated on a business basis
(pay back period is 10-12 years) at the present delivery prices. Nevertheless,
more and more examples of the utilisation of wind-power can be seen, and the
number of wind-powered generators is growing.
This wind-power plant relieves an emission of about 1,800 tons/year of CO2.
It demonstrate a new technology in Hungary and got an Innovation Award in
To promote renewable energy a conference room was also built near too the windmill
which provides place for lecture to 50 people.
At the end of 2002, EMST promoted the installation of 2 more generators – identical
with those two at Kulcs -, in the western part of Hungary, at Mosómagyaróvár.
In the western part of Hungary, new profit-oriented companies have appeared,
clearing the ground for planting new generators.
There is a hope for establishing generators of corporate ownership beside those
installed by private firms, which can be important pillars of sustainable initiations
independent of prices in the international market.
To achieve this
indispensable to ratify laws concerning electric power in order to calculate
their capacity to bring forth profit, which is
economically competitive. This law has been changed in a positive way in 2002.
The required delivery price has been rectified: from 0,06 E/kWh by day to 0,104
E/kWh by day, from 0,065 E/kWh by night respectively. The required delivery
price yet falls behind the required average limit value of 0,091 E/kWh, at
which price wind-powered generators could be installed on the basis of bank
In the near future, sources for domestic and EU tenders are necessary so that
they could cover all the expenses in support of both domestic and public advantages
of utilising wind-power in Hungary has been questioned many times. Namely,
the country – for the most part – lies
on a plain, gently hilly territory in the Karpathian Basin at 1,500-2,000
and less frequent winds of this area have largely contributed to forming the
opinion in the layman that these sources of energy are not worth utilising.
A big obstacle to the realisation of wind power is that there is no existing
country-sized wind map, thus the concerns cannot be scientifically refused.
Therefore the preparation of a wind map of the country would help future