EU POLICY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
There are two crucial EU documents on renewable energy that should be considered by NGOs from accession countries as their priority for lobbying. First there is a DIRECTIVE 2001/77/EC (full version) on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources. As all directives this should be incorporated into national legislation. Second there is a non-binding document GREEN PAPER (full version) that deals with the security of energy supply in EU. Both documents are aimed at stronger utilization of renewables in EU.

Driving force behind these documents is the security of energy supply, environmental and social issues (job creation). All these aspects are relevant for CEE countries as well. Taking into account huge dependence on imported fuels in CEE region the future of enlarged EU does not seems much better from the perspective of above mentioned fears. Having on mind poor record of the support of renewables in most of CEE countries and a lack of capacity it is up to NGOs from CEE to step into a dialogue with decision makers. The ultimate goal should not be only the implementation of EU legislative which will happen anyway but pushing for the measures which are needed for achieving the goals (like doubling the share of RE). Both EU documents provide us with   several options how to develop renewables. It is up to us to choose the best and push for it. According to the experience the most successful measure showed to be the feed-in tariffs as those applied in Germany. There are signs of hope also in CEE region. In Czech republic the feed-in tariffs has been set in similar way.

Bellow you can find most important parts from these documents.

DIRECTIVE 2001/77/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 27 September 2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources.
The purpose of this Directive is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework thereof.

The Directive uses following definitions:
(a) ‘renewable energy sources’ are renewable non-fossil energy sources (wind, solar, geothermal, wave, tidal, hydropower, biomass, landfill gas, sewage treatment plant gas
and biogases);
(b) ‘biomass’ means the biodegradable fraction of products, waste and residues from agriculture (including vegetal and animal substances), forestry and related industries, as well as the biodegradable fraction of industrial and municipal waste;

This Directive says that :
· the potential for the exploitation of renewable energy sources is underused in the Community at present. The Community recognises the need to promote renewable energy sources as a priority measure given that their exploitation contributes to environmental protection and sustainable development. In addition this can also create local employment, have a positive impact on social cohesion, contribute to security of supply and make it possible to meet Kyoto targets more quickly. It is therefore necessary to ensure that this potential is better exploited within the framework of the internal electricity market.

· The promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources is a high Community priority for reasons of security and diversification of energy supply, of environmental protection and of social and economic cohesion. That was endorsed by the Council and by the European Parliament in its resolution on the White Paper.

· To ensure increased market penetration of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the medium term, all Member States should be required to set national indicative targets for the consumption of electricity from renewable sources.

· The Commission should assess to what extent Member States have made progress towards achieving their national indicative targets, and to what extent the national indicative targets are consistent with the global indicative target of 12 % of gross domestic energy consumption by 2010, considering that the White Paper's indicative target of 12 % for the Community as a whole by 2010 provides useful guidance for increased efforts at Community level as well as in Member States, bearing in mind the need to reflect differing national circumstances. If necessary for the achievement of the targets, the Commission should submit proposals to the European Parliament and the Council which may include mandatory targets.

· The need for public support in favour of renewable energy sources is recognised in the Community guidelines for State aid for environmental protection, which, amongst other options, take account of the need to internalise external costs of electricity generation.

· A legislative framework for the market in renewable energy sources needs to be established.

· When favouring the development of a market for renewable energy sources, it is necessary to take into account the positive impact on regional and local development opportunities, export prospects, social cohesion and employment opportunities, especially as concerns small and medium-sized undertakings as well as independent power producers.

· The specific structure of the renewable energy sources sector should be taken into account, especially when reviewing the administrative procedures for obtaining permission to construct plants producing electricity from renewable energy sources.

National indicative targets
1. Member States shall take appropriate steps to encourage greater consumption of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in conformity with the national indicative targets. These steps must be in proportion to the objective to be attained.

2. Not later than 27 October 2002 and every five years thereafter, Member States shall adopt and publish a report setting national indicative targets for future consumption of
electricity produced from renewable energy sources in terms of a percentage of electricity consumption for the next 10 years. The report shall also outline the measures taken or planned, at national level, to achieve these national indicative targets. To
set these targets until the year 2010, the Member States shall:
· take account of the reference values in the Annex,
· ensure that the targets are compatible with any national commitments accepted in the context of the climate change commitments accepted by the Community pursuant to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

3. Member States shall publish, for the first time not later than 27 October 2003 and thereafter every two years, a report which includes an analysis of success in meeting the national indicative targets taking account, in particular, of climatic factors likely to affect the achievement of those targets and which indicates to what extent the measures taken are consistent with the national climate change commitment.

4. On the basis of the Member States' reports referred to in paragraphs 2 and 3, the Commission shall assess to what extent:
· Member States have made progress towards achieving their national indicative targets,
· the national indicative targets are consistent with the global indicative target of 12 % of gross national energy consumption by 2010 and in particular with the 22,1 % indicative share of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in total Community electricity consumption by 2010.

Summary report
The Commission shall present to the European Parliament and the Council, no later than 31 December 2005 and thereafter every five years, a summary report on the implementation of this Directive.

Transposition
Member States shall bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this Directive not later than 27 October 2003. They shall forthwith inform the Commission thereof.
 

GREEN PAPER
Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply.

In this paper EU claims that:
1. the European Union is consuming more and more energy and importing more and more energy products.
2. Community production is insufficient for the Union’s energy requirements.

As a result, external dependence for energy is constantly increasing. The dramatic rise in oil prices which could undermine the recovery of the European economy, caused by the fact that the price of crude oil has tripled since March 1999, once again reveals the European Union’s structural weaknesses regarding energy supply, namely Europe’s growing dependence on energy, the role of oil as the governing factor in the price of energy and the disappointing results of policies to control consumption.

Without an active energy policy, the European Union will not be able to free itself from its increasing energy dependence. If no measures are taken, in the next 20 to 30 years 70 % of the Union’s energy requirements, as opposed to the current 50 %, will be covered by imported products. This dependence can be witnessed in all sectors of the economy.

Enlargement will exacerbate these trends. In economic terms, the consequences of this dependence are heavy. It cost the Union some EUR 240 billion in 1999, or 6 % of total imports. In geopolitical terms, 45 % of oil imports come from the Middle East and 40 % of natural gas from Russia.

The Green Paper proposes that with regard to supply, priority must be given to the fight against global warming. The development of new and renewable energies (including biofuels) is the key to change. Doubling their share in the energy supply quota from 6 to 12 % and raising their part in electricity production from 14 to 22 % is an objective to be attained between now and 2010. If current conditions apply, they will stagnate around 7 % in 10 years. Only financial measures (aids, tax deductions and financial support) would be able to buttress such an ambitious aim. One way which could be explored is that profitable energies such as oil, gas and nuclear energy could finance the development of renewable energies which, unlike traditional energy sources, have not benefited from substantial support.

GREEN PAPER ON RENEWABLES
Green Paper says that renewable energy sources (RES) are attractive to energy supply for environmental and geopolitical reasons. Although, in general, the fuel source is cheap or free, the technology has generally not reached a sufficiently mature stage in order to render RES economically attractive. Theoretically, renewable energy has the potential to provide a safe, clean and affordable energy supply using indigenous sources, without threat of external disruption or exhaustion of reserves. The Commission has set a target to double the share of renewables from 6 % (mostly large hydro) to 12 % of total primary energy production in 2010. However, in order to reach this target, specific and targeted action will be necessary. As well as technical barriers, a major obstacle is the high cost of RES technologies compared to the cost of fossil fuels based technologies. This suggests the need for appropriate financial incentives to promote renewables. Another obstacle is the exclusion of external costs from the price of fossil fuels, coupled with an inheritance of subsidies on the part  of conventional energies (including nuclear energy). This implies a distorted market to the detriment of RES. In those sectors where technology is more advanced, e.g. wind, costs have fallen dramatically over the previous decade and continue to fall.