Czech Republic               By Jiri Jerabek (Centre for Transport and Energy, Czech Republic)


Basic information





Mt CO2



Mt CO2



2007 %



year  %

Kyoto target


Czech Republic

















No target




GDP Growth



GDP Growth



GDP Growth (est.) %

Gross Inland Energy Consumption Change

Feb.2009/ Feb.2008     %

Czech Republic






Source: EEA Report No. 5/2007


Greenhouse-gas emissions for emission-trading system sectors were 82,5 mil. t CO2 for 2005, 83,6 for 2006 and 86,8 for 2007. This is an increase by 5% in two years.  The main cause of increased ETS emissions according to our analysis is the low price of carbon allowances and increased production (consumption and export) of electricity from coal-powered plants.  In the non-EU sector it is the constant growth of the transport industry. Future emission increases depend very much on the final form of the climate package and on the national climate strategy developed by the end of 2008.


Public attitude towards Climate Change (CC)


The latest Eurobarometer poll shows that concern about climate change is lower within the Czech population than it is anywhere else in the EU.


No opinion data are available on this topic.  Our estimations are that there is some concern about weather (disasters) and almost no interest in UN policies.


No opinion data are available on this topic.  We estimate that the last big floods have made people more sensitive to this topic and that the public is thinking more about weather extremes.


There are some voices in the public emphasising the benefits of CC in the Czech Republic including the Czech president.


No opinion data are available on this topic.  We estimate a very low awareness.


The latest Czech polls by CVVM (

shows no change in public considering CC as a global problem (75% in 2002, 75% in 2008; respondents ranked it as the 4th least important problem out of 12 listed problems – first is drinking water with 95%, last nuclear with 33%).


Approve a strong national climate-change strategy which would consist of a combination of measures and funds dedicated for such activities. A new climate law as in the UK.


Mainly saying that the US and China do nothing, so why shouldn’t we do the same?


President Klaus’s skepticism is the most visible feature of the Czech climate debate. Since the end of 2006 he has been very active in commenting on CC-related issues and opposing any action to save the climate. He consistently says that climate change is ‘a myth’, claiming that it is nothing more than ‘hysteria’. He wrote a book about this topic (‘Blue, Not Green Planet’), published in April 2007, recently available in the German language, in English (printed in US), in Russian and in Dutch.


NGOs are criticising each of his actions. This showed up as a successful strategy since it was easy to argue and the media was listening. During this time, also, journalists found out that the Czech president is a bit lonely, and they did not take him so seriously. The Czech president’s position is not imbued with strong executive powers; however, he has a strong informal influence on policy and politics. He is trying to do his own foreign policy which is quite often not consistent with the governmental one. Another “hot topic” is that of the Czech presidency of the EU in the first half of 2009. CC will be the priority of our EU government, but the specific implications of this statement is a big topic in the governmental coalition, in general with Greens pushing this agenda and with conservatives restricting it.


NGOs activities


On the expert and political level, yes. Not in the public debate. Firstly, there is no public debate, and secondly, NGOs do not get much space in the media.


NGOs are regularly in contact with the ministries.


Yes, it is the main source.


Renewables, efficiency, energy savings, green procurement, switch from coal to gas.



Media coverage of CC


Not much.


They mainly translate the headline news from Reuters.  On the Czech level, they cover activities of president Klaus.


Environmental ministry:

Czech climate coalition:

Czech Hydrometeorological Institute:


Yes, we have Czech translations of the summaries.



Policies and Measures


Some members of the government (unfortunately from the most powerful political party) prefer to question the need for further emission reductions rather than seriously discuss their scope. There is no substantial informed public debate about a Post-2012 climate regime.


The Czech Republic so far supports 2005 as a base year for calculation of 2020 targets and thus is not likely to join the group of the new member states that are questioning this base year.


The NGOs would like to see reduction of GHG emissions by 30 by 2020 for the EU domestically, as only such reduction would fairly and equitably contribute to the 2oC target according to latest science.


Media probably will not support higher targets. Some of the media could advocate for lower targets, mainly as a result of lobbying by industry.


The EU ETS at its first stage (allocation plans 1 and 2) was perceived as an opportunity to subsidize Czech industry with excess allowances, since the country is well below its Kyoto target and so there was no need for any GHG reductions. This was the major problem of this instrument. With the proposed changes in its design, the usual fears are prevailing: concerns about competitiveness, energy prices, and unemployment.


The table below clearly shows the winners of the first trading period (2005-2007). Apart from the power sector, it is mainly the chemical industry that benefited most from huge overallocations. Power company ÈEZ, a.s. (the biggest power producer in Czech Rep., majority state-owned) was broadly and well reported to gain profits of almost 1 billion Czech crowns (41 million EUR) in 2005.



Allocation for 2005 (NAP 1)

CO2 emissions in 2005

Difference between allocation for 2005 and real CO2 emissions in 2005 (%)

Public Energy Production

63 485 493

55 962 324


Corporate Energy Production

3 766 771

2 527 031



1 370 498

996 971


Chemical Production

5 574 288

4 684 701



249 827

238 046


Production and Processing of Metals

15 455 479

12 225 291



3 047 260

2 553 038



1 341 085

1 008 137



827 848

782 407



808 166

717 173



251 899

140 557



948 384

618 051



97 448 020

82 453 727




 According to the IPCC Annex I Parties will need to reduce GHG emissions “between 25 and 40 percent below 1990 levels for the period beyond 2012. Do you see this as a realistic target for your country?

Since Czech Republic already has reduced its emissions by around 23% (2006) and the potential for further reduction is – 40% by 2020, the real emissions depend on EU and national legislation as well as on business commitments.


There is no big public campaign about this.


Feed-in tariffs, subventions.


There are and were many different governmental measures aiming to reduce energy use and to promote energy efficiency. The governmental strategies are listed in the National Program to Abate the Climate Change Impacts in the Czech Republic (English:$pid/MZPOBFKFL7JL) and in the State Energy Policy (English:  They consist mainly of subsidies for different public or private sectors. The impacts are (were) not significant due to inadequate amounts of finances earmarked for this purpose.


Feed-in-tariffs from 2004, and recently, EU structural funds.


RE potentially could rise to 17% of final energy consumption, and EE has even greater potential. The heat consumption in the housing sector can be reduced at a reasonable price by 60%. Fulfillment of the indicative target of electricity production from renewable sources:


One block under construction: Ledvice, done by CEZ, new block 660 MW, 47% effectiveness.  Two old blocks (2x110MW) are slated to be closed there by the end of 2010.


There are plans for two new natural-gas power plants. One in Pocerady is planned by CEZ, 2x 440MW, to be finished by 2013. The second one at Uzin is also planned by CEZ (220MW). Nevertheless, there is a strong opposition from local residents.


The biggest Czech energy company, CEZ, is assessing two places in which it might build CCS and is trying to find some subsidies for doing so. The last unsuccessful attempt was to get part of the revenues from Kyoto credits. At the end, all of the money will go to energy efficiency.


There is a split within the government (and parliament). The Greens do not want new NPPs, the rest of the parties want them. The official position of the government is not to promote or plan new NPPs.


Other information


The Ministry of Environment, Minister of Environment, Prime Minister, Ministry of Trade and Industry, Czech Hydro Meteorological Institute.


Environmental ministry:

Czech climate coalition:

Czech Hydrometeorological Institute:


Czech public polls in the last 7 years show no improvement in perceiving CC as a global threat. However, there is a significant change in the national debate. Since 2007, CC gets more place in the media as well as in politics. The attitude of national opinion-formers is slowly changing. A recent sign of positive development is the fact that CC is a priority of the Czech EU presidency.